Time: 2 Hours; Marks: 30

1. Errors of Refraction

2. Subjective Examination

3. Hypermetropin

  • (i) Aetiology.
  • (ii) Optical condition.
  • (iii) Normal age variation.
  • (iv) Clinical pathology.
  • (v) Clinical symptoms.
  • (vi) Treatment.

4. Myporia

  • (i) Aetiology.
  • (ii) Optical condition.
  • (iii) Clinical pathology.
  • (iv) Clinical symptoms.
  • (v) Prognosis.
  • (vi) Prophylaxis.
  • (vii) Treatment.

5. Astigmatism

  • (i) Aetiology.
  • (ii) Optical condition.
  • (iii) Types of astigmatism.
  • (iv) Regular and irregular astigmatism.

6. Theoretical Basis of Optical Correction

7. Anisometropia and Aniseikonia


  • (i) Vision.
  • (ii) Treatment.


  • (i) Aetiology.
  • (ii) Types.
  • (iii) Symptoms.
  • (iv) Investigation.
  • (v) Treatment.

8. Spectacle Lenses and Binocular Vision

9. Aphakia

  • (i) Diagnosis.
  • (ii) Optical condition.
  • (iii) Treatment.

10. Accommodation

  • (i) The nature and mechanism of accommodation.
  • (ii) Physical and Physiological accommodation.
  • (iii) The range, amplitude and availability of accommodation.
  • (iv) Associated phenomenon.
  • (v) Fatigue of accommodation.

11. Convergence

  • (i) Volumtary and reflex convergence.
  • (ii) Measurment of convergence.
  • (iii) Relation with accommodation.
  • (iv) Binocular accommodation.
  • (v) Fatigue of convergence.

12. Anomalies of Accommodation and Convergence


  • (i) Ill sustained accommodation.
  • (ii) Spasm insufficiency.
  • (iii) Ill sustained accommodation.
  • (iv) Inertia and paralysis.
  • (v) Cycloplegia.

13. (a) Anomalies of Convergence

  • (i) Convergence insufficiency.
  • (ii) Errors of Refraction: Anomalies of Refraction.

14. Frames

  • (a) Introduction.
  • (b) Metals.
  • (c) Tortoise shell.
  • (d) Plastic and synthetic materials.
  • (e) Types of spectacles.
  • (f) System of measurement and frame measurements.
  • (g) Lectures on combination of lenses.
    • Principal of Ophthalmoscope.
    • Retinoscopes and other ophthalmic equipment, microscopy, telescopes etc. For which the lense¬†manufacture is required.

15. System of Measurement of Frame Measures

  • (a) Datum system.
  • (b) Boxing system.
  • (c) Gomac system.
  • (d) Frame measurement.

16. Frame Measurement

17. Lens Shape

Definition of lens shapes.

  • (i) Standardization of lens size measurement.
  • (ii) Major minor relationship.
  • (iii) Measurement of angles.

18. Joints

  • (i) Position of joints, angles of joints.
  • (ii) Frontal width and tempal width.

19. Contact Lens

20. Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness

21. Classification of Low Vision Aids and Special Features of Groups and their Mode of Motion

22. Visual Requirement in Industries

Ophthalmic lens

  • (a) Optical machineries.
    • (i) Grinding machinery.
    • (ii) Edging and fitting machinery.
  • (b) Grinding material.
  • (c) Tools and gauges and their testing.
  • (d) Fusing of bifocal lenses.
  • (e) Coating of Ophthalmic lenses.
  • (f) Making of different types of lenses.
  • (g) Plastics lenses.

23. Prevention of Industrial Injury and Special Service to Aid this

24. Protective Lenses

Radiant energy: Effects of radiations on eyes, Absorption of radiations by glasses, Some protective glasses available, Further effects of tinted- glasses, metalic eye protectors, protection against mechanical injury, globular lenses, reinforced (safety) glasses.

25. Thick Lenses

26. Lens Form and Thickness, Effective, Equivalent and Vertex Power