Time: 2.5 Hours; Marks: 50
Immuno Haematology and Blood Banking (14)
Basic Principles of Blood Banking. Immuno haematology and Transfusion Medicine. Human Blood Group system- ABO Rh and other blood groups.
ABO Blood group system-Genetics and Biochemistry, Clinical significance of ABO system. Principles of ABO group determination. Bombay group, Blood group and disease.
Rhesus Blood group system-Genetics, Rh D positive and Rh D negative groups, D variagnt, clinical significance of Rh blood group system.
Other blood systems and their clinical significance. Blood group serology-Principle of Techniques. Antiglobulin (Coombs) test-Principles. Reagent, Utility of Direct and Indirect Coombs’ test. Specificity, Sources of Blood for Transfusion-Voluntary, Replacement and Professional Blood Donors, Donor Panel and its utilisation.
Guidelines for Transfusion Practice: Selection of Blood and its components, Compatibility testing-Rationale, Major and Minor cross-matching, Design of the compability.
Blood Transfusion-Whole Blood Indication, Selection of Different Components for their uses.
Complications of Blood Transfusion and their prevention.
Investigation of Transfusion reaction.
Alternatives to Homologous Blood Transfusion and concept of Autologous Blood Transfusion.
Haemolytic diseases of Newborns.
Blood Banks and transfusion services – Standards, Organization and Planning.
Clinical Pathology (14)
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)- Composition, collection of the fluids physical, chemical, bectological & cell count, clinical significance.
Pericardial, Pleural, Peritoneal, Amniotic and Synovial fluids-Physical, chemical, cytological, bectological examination.
Exfoliative Cytology on sputum.
Quantitative Cytology on sputum.
Quantitative urine test for proteins, Bence Jones protein, Acetone body, urebilinogen Bilepigment & Porphobilinogen, Porphyrins & Porphyuria.
Evaluation of renal functions.
Normal and abnormal Haemopoiesis.
Anemia – Mechanism of production, Megaloblastic and Haemolytic anemias. Osmotic fragility, screening tests, clinical significance, Haemoglobinopathies normal and abnormal Hibsickle cell anemia-thalassemia, Bone Marrow smearindications and significance, Leukemias acute and chronic leukemia, Aleukemic Leukemia and Leukemoid reaction.
Diagnostic significance of peripheral smears.
G6PD tests – Qualitative, clinical significance of G6PD – deficiericy.
LE – Cell phenomenon.
Platelets1- morphology, platelet count platelet deficiencies.
Coagulation: Factors of coagulation, mechanism, Preanrembin time, Bleeding time, Coagulation time.
Frozen Section - use of crystal/freezing microtone, indications, uses, Staining procedures frozen sections, Decalcification - section of tissue techniques, assessment chelating agents, decalcifying solution, surface decalcification.
Specialised Techniques and Procedure of tissue processing, Plastic embedded sections and electron microscopy, Elementary knowledge Morphometry.
Special stains – Reticular stain, Anyloid, PAS, Pigments, Stains for connective tissues, cytoplasmic granules, nerve cells and nerve fibre.
Museum techniques – Preparation of specimen, fixation, restoration, colour preservation and presentation.
Vaginal smears: Hormone effects, changes, cervical smear inflammatory and neoplastic.
Sex chromtin buccal smear FNAC (fine needle aspiration cytology).