Time: 2.5 Hours; Marks: 50

1. Metabolism (18)

Carbohydrates: Definition, functions, classification, Metabolism of carbohydrates, Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, Citric acid cycle, Hexose Monophosphate shunt, Glycogenolysis, Glycogenesis, Gluconeogenesis, Regulation of Blood Sugar, Diabetes Mellitus, Glycosylated Haemoglobin.

Lipids: Definition, Classification, Importance, General Lipid Metabolism, Digestion Absorption of Fat, Oxidation of Fatty acids, Ketosis, Lipoprotein metabolism classification of lipoprotein, Important lipid profile tests.

Proteins: Aminoacids, peptides and proteins: classification of proteins: Digestion and absorption of proteins, Formation of Urea, Transamination, Deamination, Plasma Protein, Liprotropic factors.

Nucleic Acid Nucleon Proteins: Definitions, Biological role of nucleic acid, nucleoproteins, Purnies and pyrimidines, Formation of Uric Acid.

2. Organ Functions and Enzymology (18)

(a) Organ Functions.

Kidney Functions Test (KFT): General consideration, Evaluation of KFT.

Liver Functions Tests (LFT): Liver functions, investigations of liver functions, uses of liver functions tests.

Pancreatic Function Test: Function of pancreas, pancreatic juice, pancreatic function tests.

Test for Gastric Function: General consideration: Chemical analysis of gastric contents, Clinical Significance, Tubeless gastric analysis.

Tests for Thyroid: Thyroid functions, importance of thyroid functions tests.

Cardiac Profile Test: General consideration, cardiac functions, Ischemic heart diseases, cardiac profile tests.

(b) Enzymes: Definition and Importance, Nomenclature and classification of enzymes. Specific enzymes, factors influencing enzyme activity; coenzymes, clinical enzymology, definition and importance of alkaline phosphatases, acid phosphatases, amylases, Transaminases (GOT, GPT) Lactic dehydrogenase.

3. Applied Clinical Chemistry (14)

  • Importance of trace elements.
  • Iron Metabolism/General consideration of Importance of Na+, K+, Cl, Ca+ fluoride, magnesium.
  • Balanced diet.
  • In born errors of metabolism, General Consideration & Clinical importance, Carbohydrate, Protein, Lipid, Nucleic acid Matabolisms, Acid base balance and disturbance of acid base balance, clinical importance.
  • Vitamins: General consideration, clinical importance, vitamin deficiencies.

Hormones

  • Introduction, General Mechanism of actions, Hormones of Thyroid Function, Pituitary Functions, Adrenal Functions, Male and Female hormones, function, clinical importance.

Jaundice

  • Bile pigment derangements, Clinical Significance, Prehepatic, hepatic and post hepatic jaundice, applications of clinical Laboratory tests to differentiative types of Jaundice.
  • Normal and abnormal value of clinical chemistry in relation of human diseases.
  • General consideration and interpretations.