Time: 2 Hours; Marks: 30

1. Cell Biology (5)

Introduction: Cell theory, Cell as a unit of life, Tools and techniques of cell studies, Microscopy (use of microscope and calibration), Elements of microscopes, Electron Microscopy elementary knowledge of principles. Biomembranes – Transport mechanism, cellular respiration, Cell organelles structure and their functions enzymes, and hormones-their chemical and physical structure, mode of action, Role of regulation of cellular activities, Nucleus chromosomes, DNA structure including events in replication and transcription, Genetic code, protein synthesis.

2. Genetics (5)

Mitosis, and details of meiosis, and meiosis compared and constrasted, significance of meiosis, Monohybrid and bi-hybri crosses, Mendel's laws of inheritance, Linkage and Crossing over, discovery of linkage, stage at which crossing over occurs, Non-mendelian Inheritance, Reasons for the success of Mendal in his experiments, Sex linked inheritance, Neurospora genetics, Gene interaction and expression.

Mutations

Discovery, types of mutation, mutations in, diploids and haploids, physical and chemical mutagens, Continuous and discontinuous variation, Role of mutations in evolution, Role in Agriculture and Animal husbandry. 

Mendelism as the basis of genetics, Factor from gene to cistron, One Gene, One enzyme and the cistron-one poly peptide chain.

Quantitative inheritance, example of quantitive inheritance. e.g. colour of wheat kernel, colour of skin in man etc. Monogenic vs. Polygenic inheritance.

Human genetics, Human chromosomes, Numerical changes, Polygenic inheritance, Blood grinning Isomatic cell genetics, Protoplast fusion, Manmads hybrids, sex-linked characters, Genetic disorders-Genetics and society, Improvement of Plants and animals, conservation of gene pool, Genetic counselling, Genetic engineering.

3. Basic Features of Development in Animals (5)

Formation of genes, Structure of ovum, types of eggs, example of insect, frog chick and mammalian eggs, structure of sperm motility and number of sperms.

Fertilization - Aspect, sites and types, cleavage, significance, types, difference from ordinary mitosis, Gastrulation - Process and results.

4. Significance of Life Cycles with Special Reference (5)

To alternation of generation as exemplified in spirogyra: Funaria, Dryopteris, Pinus and angiosperms (No structural details), Elements of tissue and Organ culture, Differentiation, concept of cellular totipostency, normal growth in plants.

5. Human Diseases (4)

Definition of diseases, classification, general account of causes and control, immunity and chemotherapy, Diseases of Man: Typhoid, Tuberclulosis, Plague, Cholera, Polio, Rabies, measles, Ring worm, dandruff worms and dysentery.

(Different types of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and virus like organisms, fungi, helminthes, protozoa.) 

Sources of infections, infection and contagion, economic importance of diseases, methods of prevention and biological control).

6. Forestry (3)

Elementary idea of forest wealth and conservation.

7. Industrial use of Microorganisms (3)

Fermentation, Alcohol and Antibiotics.