Time allowed is 3 hours and Maximum Marks is 70. This question paper contains 22 questions. All questions are compulsory. Question numbers 1 to 7 are very short answer questions carrying 1 mark each. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 40 words.

Question numbers 8 to 13 are short answer questions carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 80-100 words. Question numbers 14 to 20 are long answer questions carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 150 words.

Question numbers 21 and 22 are related to identification and locating and labelling of geographical features on maps, carrying 5 marks each.

Section - A

1. Define the term ‘literacy’.

OR

Define the term ‘Age Structure’.

2. Differentiate between ‘Growth’ and ‘Development’.

3. Write the meaning of ‘digital divide’.

4. Mention any two problems of barter system of trade.

5. Explain why male migration is higher than females from rural to urban areas in India.

OR

Explain why female migration is higher from rural to rural areas in India.

6. Examine the importance of ‘rain water harvesting’.

7. Why is urban waste a serious problem in India ? Explain one reason.

OR

Why is air pollution a serious problem in India ? Explain one reason.

Section - B

8. “Physical environment has been greatly modified by human beings, it has also, in turn impacted human lives.” Explain the statement.

9. Study the given diagram carefully and answer the questions that follow :

(9.1) Identify and name the pattern of rural settlement shown in the diagram.

(9.2) Explain any two characteristics of this type of pattern of rural settlement.

OR

Study the given diagram carefully and answer the questions that follow :

(9.1) Identify and name the pattern of rural settlement shown in the diagram.

(9.2) Explain any two characteristics of this type of rural settlement.

10. Study the following table and answer the questions that follow :

(10.1) Which decade has shown the negative trend of growth rate of population ?

(10.2) Mention any two decades in which the percentage decadal growth has shown the regular downward trend.

(10.3) Explain any two reasons for the declining trend in the population growth rate.

11. “The prime task before any development activity in India is to maintain parity between population and resources.” Justify the statement.

12. Describe the importance of sea routes in handling India’s foreign trade.

13. Examine the level of urbanisation in India after independence.

OR

“Towns flourished since prehistoric times in India.” Examine.

Section - C

14. Define the term ‘density of population’. Elaborate any four geographical factors that influence the distribution of population in the world.

15. Describe any five characteristics of ‘Pastoral Nomadism’ in the world.

16. Explain any five characteristics of ‘high tech industry’ in the world.

OR

Explain any five characteristics of ‘large scale manufacturing’ in the world.

17. Analyse any five points of importance of ‘pipelines’ as means of transportation.

OR

Analyse the three factors that affect the development of inland waterways. Explain the significance of Rhine inland waterways.

18. “‘Erratic monsoon’ and ‘low productivity’ are the major problems of Indian agriculture.” Substantiate the statement.

19. Explain with examples, the factors that helped in the development of ‘Hugli industrial region’.

OR

Explain with examples, the factors that helped in the development of ‘Mumbai-Pune industrial region’.

20. “India has one of the largest network of roads in the world.” Support the statement with examples.

21. Identify the five geographical features shown on the given political outline map of the world as A, B, C, D and E. Write their correct names on the lines drawn near them with the help of the following information :

(A) An industrial region

(B) A major seaport

(C) The terminal station of a transcontinental railway

(D) An international airport

(E) A mega city

22. Locate and label any five of the following geographical features with appropriate symbols on the political outline map of India :

(22.1) The state with highest level of urbanization.

(22.2) The leading state in the production of coffee.

(22.3) An oil refinery in Haryana.

(22.4) The steel plant setup in collaboration with U.K.

(22.5) An international airport in Assam.

(22.6) The major seaport in Odisha.

(22.7) The Headquarters of North-Eastern Railway.

(22.8) Singareni coal mines.