The question paper has 26 questions in all. Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are Very Short Answer type Questions. Each question carries one mark. Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Question number 26 is a map question. It has two parts 26(A) and 26(B). 26(A) of 2 marks from History and 26(B) of 3 marks from Geography.

1. Why were big European powers met in Berlin in 1885 ?

OR

Why were merchants from towns in Europe began to move countryside in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ?

OR

Why did Charles Booth, a Liverpool ship owner conduct the first social survey of low skilled workers in the East End of London in 1887 ?

2. Why did the Roman Catholic Church impose control over publishers and booksellers ?

OR

Why do novels use vernacular ?

3. Classify resources on the basis of origin.

4. ‘A challenge is not just any problem but an opportunity for progress.’ Analyse the statement.

5. State any two goals of development other than income.

6. When we produce goods by exploiting natural resources, in which category of economic sector such activities come ?

7. Give any two examples of informal sector of credit.

8. Describe the impact of ‘Rinderpest’ on people’s livelihoods and local economy in Africa in the 1890s.

OR

Describe any three major problems faced by Indian cotton weavers in nineteenth century.

OR

Describe any three steps taken to clean up London during nineteenth century.

9. “The ‘Print Revolution’ had transformed the lives of people changing their relationship to information and knowledge.” Analyse the statement.

OR

Distinguish between the themes of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ and ‘Jane Eyre’ novels written by Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte respectively.

10. How has the ever increasing number of industries in India made worse position by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources ? Explain.

11. “Dense and efficient network of transport is a pre-requisite for local and national development.” Analyse the statement.

12. Describe any three provisions of amendment made in ‘Indian Constitution’ in 1992 for making ‘Three-Tier’ government more effective and powerful.

13. Explain the three factors that are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.

14. “Secularism is not an ideology of some political parties or persons, but it is one of the foundations of our country.” Examine the statement.

15. How is the issue of sustainability important for development ? Explain with examples.

16. Distinguish the service conditions of organized sector with that of unorganized sector.

17. Why is cheap and affordable credit important for the country’s development ? Explain any three reasons.

18. How can consumer awareness be spread among consumers to avoid exploitation in the market place ? Explain any three ways.

19. Describe the explosive conditions prevailed in Balkans after 1871 in Europe.

OR

Describe the role of different religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.

20. How did Non-Cooperation movement start with participation of middle class people in the cities ? Explain its impact on the economic front.

OR

Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation ? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement ? Explain.

21. “The Government of India has introduced various institutional and technological reforms to improve agriculture in the 1980s and 1990s.” Support this statement with examples.

OR

Compare ‘intensive subsistence farming’ with that of ‘commercial farming’ practiced in India.

22. Why is the economic strength of a country measured by the development of manufacturing industries ? Explain with examples.

23. Describe any five major functions of political parties performed in a democracy.

24. “Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual.” Justify this statement.

OR

“Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens.” Justify this statement.

25. How has foreign trade been integrating markets of different countries ? Explain with examples.

OR

How do we feel the impact of globalization on our daily life ? Explain with examples.

26. (A) Two features a and b are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them :
(a) The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
(b) The place where Gandhiji organized ‘Satyagraha’ in favour of cotton mill workers.

(B) Locate and label the following with appropriate symbols on the same given outline political map of India.
(i) Raja Sansi – International Airport
(ii) Bhadravati – Iron and Steel Plant
(iii) Software Technology Park of West Bengal