Class 12 NCERT Political Science: India since Independence

Class 12 NCERT Books

As India becomes more prominent in international politics and as events outside the country influence our lives and choices, we need to know more about the world outside. International affairs are discussed with great passion in India, but not always with sufficient understanding.

Politics is often understood as a power game played by some big leaders. But politics is also about taking collective decisions, about sorting out differences, about reaching consensus.


  1. Challenges of nation building
  2. Era of one-party dominance
  3. Politics of planned development
  4. India’s external relations
  5. Challenges to and restoration of the congress system
  6. The crisis of democratic order
  7. Rise of popular movements
  8. Regional aspirations
  9. Recent developments in Indian politics
Download NCERT Book