Class 12 NCERT Books
Class 12 NCERT History

The book begins with Harappa and ends with the framing of the Indian constitution. The book covers developments in different spheres - economic, cultural, social, political, and religious.  Some themes in the book will introduce you to the politics of the time and the nature of authority and power; others explore the way societies are organised, and the way they function and change; still others tell us about religious life and ritual practices, about the working of economies, and the changes within rural and urban societies.

  1. History Part 1

  2. History Part 2

  3. History Part 3


  1. The Harappan Civilisation
  2. Early States and Economies (600 BCE-600 CE)
  3. Early Societies (600 BCE-600 CE)
  4. Cultural Developments (600 BCE-600 CE)
  5. Perceptions of Society (tenth to seventeenth centuries)
  6. Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts (eighth to eighteenth centuries)
  7. An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara (fourteenth to sixteenth centuries)
  8. Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire (sixteenth-seventeenth centuries)
  9. The Mughal Courts (sixteenth-seventeenth centuries)
  10. Colonialism: Exploring Official Archives
  11. 1857 Revolt and its Representations
  12. Colonial Cities: Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture
  13. Civil Disobedience and Beyond
  14. Partition: Politics, Memories, Experiences
  15. The Beginning of a New Era