Class 12 NCERT History

Class 12 NCERT Books
Class 12 NCERT History

The book begins with Harappa and ends with the framing of the Indian constitution. The book covers developments in different spheres - economic, cultural, social, political, and religious.  Some themes in the book will introduce you to the politics of the time and the nature of authority and power; others explore the way societies are organised, and the way they function and change; still others tell us about religious life and ritual practices, about the working of economies, and the changes within rural and urban societies.


  1. The Harappan Civilisation
  2. Early States and Economies (600 BCE-600 CE)
  3. Early Societies (600 BCE-600 CE)
  4. Cultural Developments (600 BCE-600 CE)
  5. Perceptions of Society (tenth to seventeenth centuries)
  6. Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts (eighth to eighteenth centuries)
  7. An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara (fourteenth to sixteenth centuries)
  8. Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire (sixteenth-seventeenth centuries)
  9. The Mughal Courts (sixteenth-seventeenth centuries)
  10. Colonialism: Exploring Official Archives
  11. 1857 Revolt and its Representations
  12. Colonial Cities: Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture
  13. Civil Disobedience and Beyond
  14. Partition: Politics, Memories, Experiences
  15. The Beginning of a New Era