A. Concept of Disease

  • Concept and definition of illness.
  • Disease causation.
  • Classification of diseases.

1. Infection

  • Meaning and types of infection.
  • Causes of infection.
  • Classification and characteristics of micro organisms: Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic.
  • Incubation period and spread of infection.
  • Transmission.
  • Factors affecting growth and destruction of microbes.

2. Immunity and Body Defense Mechanisms

  • Body’s defense mechanism.
  • Immunity – concept.
  • Hypersensitivity: Antigen antibody reaction.
  • Types of immunity.
  • Types of vaccines.
  • Storage and care– cold chain maintenance.

3. Immunization

  • Immunization against different infections – immunization schedule.
  • Injection safety.
  • Methods of administering vaccine.
  • Sterilization of syringes and needles.
  • Immunization in the community.
  • Immunization Hazards.
  • Precautions while giving vaccines.
  • Special immunization drives and programmes.

4. Collection of Specimen

  • Principles and methods of collection of specimens and handling body discharges.
  • Collection of specimens of blood, sputum, urine, stool.
  • Safe disposal of body discharges. Records and reports.

5. Disinfection and Sterilization

  • Principles and methods of antisepsis, disinfection and sterilization.
  • Methods of disinfecting different equipment’s.
  • Methods of sterilizing different equipments.

6. Waste Disposal

  • Waste disposals- infectious and non- infection: concepts, principles, and methods at different levels.

B. Communicable Diseases

1. Introduction to Communicable Diseases

  • Common communicable diseases; Epidemiological concepts- incidence and prevalence, mortality and morbidity.
  • Levels of prevention.
  • Control and prevention of communicable diseases General measures.
  • Surveillance, isolation, notification, reporting.

2. Communicable Diseases

  • Signs, Symptoms, care and prevention of the following: Diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles and tuberculosis.
  • Chicken pox, mumps, rubella, enteric fever, hepatitis, rabies, malaria, dengue, filarial, Kala-azar trachoma, conjunctivitis, scabies, STDs and HIV / AIDS.
  • Encephalitis.
  • Leptospirosis.
  • Acute respiratory infection.
  • Diarrhoeal diseases.
  • Worm infestations.
  • Leprosy.
  • Role and responsibilities of health worker / ANM.

3. Care in Communicable Diseases

  • Care of patients with communicable diseases.
  • Isolation methods.
  • Standard safety measures (Universal precautions).
  • Health education and messages for different communicable diseases.
  • Role and responsibilities of health worker / ANM.

4. Epidemic Management

  • Definitions and causes of epidemics.
  • Epidemic enquiry in a community and epidemic mapping.
  • Relief work and role of health worker / ANM.

C. Community Health Problems

1. Care of the Sick in the Community

  • Common health conditions in the community – danger signs of illnesses.
  • Health assessment: Taking history, physical examination: vital signs, weight, height: – recognition of abnormalities.
  • Identification of health problems.
  • Management of the sick: home and community nursing procedures, care of the sick, referral.
  • Health education: individual and family.

2. Fever

  • Vital signs; Temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure.
  • Temperature maintenance and the physiology of fever.
  • Fever: Types and stages.
  • Causes of fever – common conditions causing fever, malaria, typhoid, acute respiratory infection (ARI) etc.
  • Nursing management of patient with fever.
  • Alternate system of medicine.

3. Respiratory Problems

  • Common respiratory problems: types, classifications- cold and cough, ARI, asphyxia, tonsillitis, asthma, bronchitis pneumonia and tuberculosis.
  • Causes, sign and symptoms, treatment of respiratory problems.
  • Management: Role and responsibilities of ANM/health workers in care of patients with respiratory problems including Home care remedies.
  • Integrate accepted practices of AYUSH.

4. Aches and Pains

  • Causes and nursing management of: tooth, ache, ear ache, abdominal pain, headache, joint pains.
  • Management as per the standing orders and protocols.
  • Role of ANM/health worker in the community including home care remedies.
  • Integrate accepted practices of AYUSH.

5. Digestive Problems.

  • Indigestion, anorexia, vomiting, distension and Constipation.
  • Hemorrhoids, hernia, ulcer and intestinal obstruction.
  • Role of ANM/health worker in the community including home care remedies.
  • Integrate accepted practices of AYUSH.

6. Urinary Problems

  • Signs and symptoms of renal conditions.
  • Retention of urine, renal colic, edema.
  • Role of ANM/health worker in the community including home care remedies.
  • Integrate accepted practices of AYUSH.

7. Cardiovascular Problem

  • Signs and symptoms of cardiac conditions and blood related problem: heart attack, chest pain, anemia, hypertension and leukemia.
  • Care of a cardiac patient at home.
  • Role of ANM/ health worker in the community including Home care remedies.
  • Integrate accepted practices of AYUSH.

8. Diseases of the Nervous System

  • Signs and symptoms of neurological problem – headache, backache and paralysis.
  • Care of a patient with stroke at home.
  • Care of pressure points, back care changing of positions, active and passive exercises, body support to prevent contractures.
  • Role of ANM/ health worker in the community including home care remedies.
  • Integrate accepted practices of AYUSH.

9. Metabolic Disease

  • Diabetes – signs and symptoms, complications diet and medications.
  • Skin care, foot care.
  • Urine testing and administration of insulin injection.
  • Integrate accepted practices of AYUSH.

10. Diseases of Musculo Skeletal Systems

  • Signs and symptoms of sprain tear of ligaments and arthritis.
  • Integrate accepted practices AYUSH.

11. Care of Handicap

  • Handicaps – different types.
  • Counselling for prevention of certain handicaps.
  • Understandings the handicapped person.
  • Helping family to ensure need based care.

D. Primary Medical Care

1. Types of Drugs

  • Different Systems of medicine: allopathic and AYUSH.
  • Classifications of drugs.
  • Forms and characteristics of drugs.
  • Abbreviations used in medication.
  • Administration of drugs: policies and regulation, as per protocols and standing orders.
  • Calculation of dosage.

2. Administration of Drugs

  • Routes of administration – Oral, parental (intradermal, intramuscular, subcutaneous, Intra venous), rectal, local and others.
  • Administration of drugs: Precautions, principles.
  • Observations and recording.

3. Drugs used in Minor Ailments

  • Common drugs for fever, cold and cough, aches and pains etc.
  • Drug kit in the sub centre, content and its use.
  • Storage and care of drugs.

4. Common Emergency Drugs

  • Methergine, misoprostol injection oxytocin, IV fluids, antibiotics, injection and magnesium sulphatederiphylline, avil and other antihistaminic, pethedine, vitamin K, antirabies vaccine, anti snake venoms as per the protocol.
  • Precautions for administration.
  • Storage and Care of emergency drugs.

E. First Aid and Referral

1. Need for First Aid

  • Principle of first resources.
  • Mobilization of resources.
  • First aid kit & supplies.
  • Bandages: Types, Uses.
  • Principle and methods of bandaging.

2. Minor Injuries and Ailments

  • Cuts and wounds: types, principles and first aid care.
  • Foreign bodies.
  • Burns and scalds types, principles and first aid care.
  • Health education and referral.
  • Role of ANM/health worker.

3. Fractures

  • Skeletal system and different bones.
  • Fractures: Types, Causes, signs and symptoms, first aid care.
  • Methods of immobilization and transportation.

4. Life Threatening Conditions

  • Bleeding.
  • Drowning.
  • Strangulation, suffocation and asphyxia.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Cardio respiratory arrest.
  • Convulsions.
  • Foreign bodies.
  • Chest injuries.
  • Shock and allergic conditions.
  • Poisoning, bites and stings.
  • Stroke.
  • Heat stroke.
  • Severe burn.
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