Sociology Class 12 Syllabus

The duration of the paper is 3 hours and maximum marks are 80. The syllabus consists of 11 units divided into two parts: (A) Indian Society (B) Social Change and Development in India.

Exam Structure

Unit Topic Marks
A. Indian Society 40
Introducing Indian Society (Non-evaluative) -
The Demographic Structure of Indian Society 10
Social Institutions: Continuity and change 10
Pattern of Social Inequality and Exclusion 10 
The Challenges of Cultural Diversity 10
Suggestions for Project Work (Non-evaluative)
B. Social Change and Development in India 40
Structural Change 5
Cultural Change 5
11  Change and Development in Rural Society 10
12  Change and Development in Industrial Society 10
15  Social Movements 10
  Total 80

A. Indian Society

Unit 1: Introducing Indian Society

  • Colonialism, Nationalism, Class and Community

Unit 2: The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society

  • Theories and concepts in demography
  • Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions
  • Population Policy in India

Unit 3: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change

  • Caste and the Caste System
  • Tribal Communities
  • Family and Kinship

Unit 5: Pattern of Social Inequality and Exclusion

  • Social Inequality and Social Exclusion
  • Systems justifying and perpetuating Inequality - Caste, Tribe, the Other Backward Classes
  • Adivasi Struggles
  • The Struggle for Women's Equality and Rights
  • The struggles of the Differently Abled

Unit 6: The Challenges of Cultural Diversity

  • Cultural communities and the nation state
  • Regionalism in the Indian context
  • The Nation state and religion related issues and identities
  • Communalism, secularism and the nation state
  • State and Civil Society

Unit 7: Suggestions for Project Work

B. Social Change and Development in India

Unit 8: Structural Change

  • Understanding Colonialism, Industrialization, Urbanization

Unit 9: Cultural Change

  • Social Reform Movements
  • Different Kinds of Social Change: Sanskritisation, Westernization, Modernization, Secularization

Unit 11: Change and Development in Rural Society

  • Agrarian Structure: Caste & class in Rural India
  • Land Reforms, Green Revolution and Emerging Agrarian society
  • Green revolution and its social consequences
  • Transformation in Rural Society
  • Circulation of labour
  • Globalization, Liberalization and Rural Society

Unit 12: Change and Development in Industrial Society

  • From Planned Industrialization to Liberalization
  • How people find Jobs
  • Work Processes: How work is carried out, working conditions, home based work, Strikes and Unions

Unit 15: Social Movements

  • Concept of Social Movements
  • Theories and Classification of Social Movements
  • Environmental Movements
  • Class-Based Movements: Workers, Peasants
  • Caste-Based Movements: Dalit Movement, Backward Class/Castes, Trends in Upper Caste Responses
  • The Tribal Movements
  • Women's Movements in Independent India