Sociology Class 12 Syllabus

The duration of the paper is 3 hours and maximum marks are 80. The syllabus consists of 15 units divided into two parts: (A) Indian Society (B) Change and Development in Indian Society.

Exam Structure

Unit Topic Marks
A. Indian Society 32
Introducing Indian Society (Non-evaluative) -
The Demographic Structure & Indian Society 6
Social Institutions-Continuity and change
Market as a Social Institution
Pattern of Social Inequality and Exclusion
Challenges of Cultural Diversity
Suggestions for Project Work (Non-evaluative)
B. Change and Development in Indian Society 48 
Structural Change
Cultural Change
10  The Story of Democracy
11  Change and Development in Rural Society
12  Change and Development in Industrial Society
13  Globalization and Social Change
14  Mass Media and Communications
15  Social Movements
  Total 80

A. Indian Society

Unit 1: Introducing Indian Society

  • Colonialism, Nationalism, Class and Community

Unit 2: The Demographic Structure and Indian Society

  • Theories and concepts in demography
  • Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions
  • Population Policy in India

Unit 3: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change

  • Caste and the Caste System
  • Tribal Communities
  • Family and Kinship

Unit 4: Market as a Social Institution

  • Sociological perspectives on markets and the economy.
  • Understanding Capitalism as a social system
  • Globalization - Interlinking of Local, Regional, National and International Markets.

Unit 5: Pattern of Social Inequality and Exclusion

  • Social Inequality and Social Exclusion
  • Systems justifying and perpetuating Inequality - Caste, Tribe, the Other Backward Classes
  • Adivasi Struggles
  • The Struggle for Women’s Equality and Rights
  • The struggles of the Differently Abled

Unit 6: The Challenges of Cultural Diversity

  • Cultural communities and the nation state
  • Regionalism in the Indian context
  • The Nation state and religion related issues and identities
  • Communalism, secularism and the nation state
  • State and Civil Society

Unit 7: Suggestions for Project Work

B. Change and Development in Indian Society

Unit 8: Structural Change

  • Understanding Colonialism, Industrialization, Urbanization

Unit 9: Cultural Change

  • Social Reform Movements
  • Different Kinds of Social Change: Sanskritisation, Westernization, Modernization, Secularization

Unit 10: The Story of Democracy

  • The Constitution as an instrument of Social Change
  • Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Social Transformation
  • Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Democratic Politics

Unit 11: Change and Development in Rural Society

  • Agrarian Structure: Caste & class in Rural India
  • Land Reforms, Green Revolution and Emerging Agrarian society
  • Green revolution and its social consequences
  • Transformation in Rural Society
  • Circulation of labour
  • Globalization, Liberalization and Rural Society

Unit 12: Change and Development in Industrial Society

  • From Planned Industrialization to Liberalization
  • How people find Jobs
  • Work Processes: How work is carried out, working conditions, home based work, Strikes and Unions

Unit 13: Globalisation and Social Change

  • Understanding globalization
  • Dimensions of Globalization: Economic, Political Cultural

Unit 14: Mass Media and Communication

  • Types of Mass Media: Radio, Television and Print Media
  • Changing Nature of Mass Media
  • Globalisation and the media

Unit 15: Social Movements

  • Concept of Social Movements
  • Theories and Classification of Social Movements
  • Environmental Movements
  • Class-Based Movements: Workers, Peasants
  • Caste-Based Movements: Dalit Movement, Backward Class Castes, Trends in Upper Caste Responses
  • The Tribal Movements
  • Women's Movements in Independent India