# Physics Class 12 Syllabus

The duration of the exam is 3 hours and maximum marks are 70. The syllabus consists of 14 chapters.

### Exam Structure

 Unit Chapter / Topic Marks I Electrostatics 16 Chapter-1: Electric Charges and Fields Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance II Current Electricity Chapter-3: Current Electricity III Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism 17 Chapter-4: Moving Charges and Magnetism Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter IV Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction Chapter-7: Alternating Current V Electromagnetic Waves 18 Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves VI Optics Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Chapter-10: Wave Optics VII Dual Nature of Matter 12 Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter VIII Atoms and Nuclei Chapter-12: Atoms Chapter-13: Nuclei IX Electronic Devices 7 Chapter-14:  Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Total 70

### Unit I: Electrostatics

Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric charges, Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two-point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor (no derivation, formulae only).

### Unit II: Current Electricity

Chapter 3: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, temperature dependence of resistance, Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's rules, Wheatstone bridge.

### Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment.

Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight solenoid (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, moving coil galvanometer its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter

Bar magnet, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis (qualitative treatment only), torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field lines.

Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances with examples, Magnetization of materials, effect of temperature on magnetic properties.

### Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Self and mutual induction.

Chapter 7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit (phasors only), resonance, power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current.

AC generator, Transformer

### Unit V: Electromagnetic waves

Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

### Unit VI: Optics

Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter 10: Wave Optics

Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width (No derivation final expression only), coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maxima (qualitative treatment only).

### Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation - particle nature of light.

Experimental study of photoelectric effect

Matter waves - wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation.

### Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei

Chapter 12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model of hydrogen atom, Expression for radius of nth possible orbit, velocity and energy of electron in his orbit, of hydrogen line spectra (qualitative treatment only).

Chapter 13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, nuclear force

Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

### Unit IX: Electronic Devices

Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors- p and n type, p-n junction

Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, application of junction diode -diode as a rectifier.