Legal Studies Class 12 Syllabus

Theory paper is of 80 marks and 3 hours duration. There are seven units in the syllabus - (i) Judiciary (ii) Topics of Law (iii) Arbitration, Tribunal Adjudication and Alternate Dispute Resolution (iv) Human Rights in India (v) Legal Profession in India (vi) Legal Services (vii) International Context.

Exam Structure

# Units Marks
1 Judiciary 10 
2 Topics of Law 20 
3 Arbitration, Tribunal Adjudication and Alternate Dispute Resolution 10
4 Human Rights in India 10
5 Legal Profession in India 10
6 Legal Services 10
7 International Context 10
  Total  80 

Unit 1: Judiciary

  • Structure and Hierarchy of Courts and Legal Offices in India
  • Constitution, Roles and Impartiality
  • Appointments, Trainings, Retirement and Removal of Judges
  • Courts and Judicial Review

Unit 2: Topics of Law

  • Law of Property
  • Law of Contracts
  • Law of Torts
  • Introduction to Criminal Laws in India

Unit 3: Arbitration, Tribunal Adjudication and Alternate Dispute Resolution

  • Adversarial and Inquisitorial Systems
  • Introduction to Alternative Dispute Resolution
  • Types of ADR - Arbitration, Administrative Tribunals
  • Mediation and Conciliation
  • Lok Adalats
  • Ombudsman
  • Lokpal and Lokayukta

Unit 4: Human Rights in India

  • Constitutional framework and Related laws in India - Human Rights in India; Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties, Directive Principles of State Policy
  • Complaint Mechanisms of Quasi-judicial Bodies - NHRC, NCM, NCW, NCSC and NCST

Unit 5: Legal Profession in India

  • The Advocates Act, 1961
  • The Bar Council of India
  • Lawyers and Professional Ethics, Advertising by Lawyers
  • Opportunities for Law graduates
  • Legal Education in India
  • Liberalization of the Legal Profession
  • Women and the Legal Profession in India

Unit 6: Legal Services

  • Free Legal Aid under International law, Legal Aid by the State, Legal Aid under the Indian Constitution
  • NALSA Regulations, 2010
  • Criteria for giving free Legal Services
  • Lok Adalats
  • Legal Aid in Context of Social Justice and Human Rights

Unit 7: International Context

  • Introduction to International Law
  • Sources of International Law - Treaties, Customs and ICJ Decisions
  • International Institutions
  • International Human Rights
  • Customary International Law
  • International law & Municipal Law
  • International Law & India
  • Dispute Resolution - ICJ, ICC and Other Dispute Resolution Mechanisms