Geography Class 12 Term-II Syllabus

The syllabus consists of five units divided into two parts: (A) Fundamentals of Human Geography (B) India: People and Economy.

Exam Structure

Part / Unit Chapter Marks
Part A  Fundamentals of Human Geography   
Unit 3 Human Activities 9
Unit 4 Transport and Communication 6
Part B India: People and Economy  
Unit 8 Resources and Development 7
Unit 9 Transport and Communication 4
Unit 10 Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems 4
  Map Work 5
  Total 35

Part A. Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit 3: Human Activities 

  • Secondary activities - concept; manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large scale; agro-based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries
  • Tertiary activities - concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries
  • Quaternary activities - concept; people engaged in quaternary activities - case study from selected countries

Unit 4: Transport and Communication

  • Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways
  • Water transport - inland waterways; major ocean routes
  • Air transport - Intercontinental air routes
  • Oil and gas pipelines
  • Satellite communication and cyberspace - importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS

Part B. India: People and Economy

Unit 8: Resources and Development 

  • Mineral and energy resources - distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation
  • Planning in India - target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)

Unit 9: Transport and Communication

  • Transport and communication - roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks

Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems 

  • Environmental pollution; urban - waste disposal
  • Urbanization, rural - urban migration; problems of slums
  • Land degradation

Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline map of India.

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