Geography Class 12 Syllabus

The syllabus consists of nine units divided into two parts: (A) Fundamentals of Human Geography (B) India: People and Economy. The theory paper is of 70 marks and 3 hours duration.

Exam Structure

Unit Chapter Marks
Fundamentals of Human Geography  35 
Unit 1  Human Geography  30     
Unit 2 People 
Unit 3 Human Activities 
Unit 4 Transport, Communication and Trade
  Map Work 5
B India: People and Economy 35
Unit 6 People 30     
Unit 7 Human Settlements
Unit 8 Resources and Development
Unit 9 Transport, Communication and International Trade
Unit 10 Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems
  Map Work 5
  Total 70

A. Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit 1: Human Geography

  • Nature and Scope

Unit 2: People 

  • The World Population - distribution, density and growth
  • Population change - Components of population change, Demographic Transition
  • Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities 

  • Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries
  • Secondary activities - concept; manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries
  • Tertiary activities - concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities
  • Quaternary activities - concept; people engaged in quaternary activities - case study from selected countries

Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade

  • Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways
  • Water transport - inland waterways; major ocean routes
  • Air transport - Intercontinental air routes
  • Oil and gas pipelines
  • Satellite communication and cyber space - importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS
  • International trade - bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade; role of WTO in international trade

B. India: People and Economy

Unit 6: People 

  • Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population

Unit 7: Human Settlements 

  • Rural settlements - types and distribution
  • Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification

Unit 8: Resources and Development 

  • Land resources - general land use; agricultural land use; geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber); agricultural development and problems
  • Water resources - availability and utilization - irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods - rain water harvesting and watershed management
  • Mineral and energy resources - distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation
  • Planning in India - target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)

Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade

  • Transport and communication - roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks
  • International trade - changing pattern of India's foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports

Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems 

  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal
  • Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums
  • Land degradation