Biology Class 12 Term-II Syllabus

The syllabus consists of three units: (viii) Biology and Human Welfare (ix) Biotechnology and its Applications (x) Ecology and Environment.

Exam Structure

Unit Title Marks
VIII Biology and Human Welfare 14
IX Biotechnology and its Applications 11
X Ecology and Environment 10
  Total 35

Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit IX: Biotechnology and Its Applications

Chapter 11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes

Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). 

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; RNA interference, Human insulin, gene therapy; molecular diagnosis; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit X: Ecology and Environment

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

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