Biology Class 12 Syllabus

The syllabus consists of five units: (vi) Reproduction (vii) Genetics and Evolution (viii) Biology and Human Welfare (ix) Biotechnology and its Applications (x) Ecology and Environment. Theory paper is of 3 hours and 70 marks.

Exam Structure

Unit Title Marks
VI Reproduction 14
VII Genetics and Evolution 18
VIII Biology and Human Welfare 14
IX Biotechnology and its Applications 10
X Ecology and Environment 14
  Total 70

Unit VI: Reproduction

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants; events in sexual reproduction.

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (elementary idea); Lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control - Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT, AI (brief overview).

Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and variation, Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism - incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; linkage and crossing over; Sex determination - in human being, birds, grasshopper and honey bee; Mutation, Pedigree analysis, sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans - sickle cell anaemia, Phenylketonuria, thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon; Human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter 7: Evolution

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); adaptive radiation; Biological evolution: Lamarck’s theory of use and disuse of organs, Darwin's theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; brief account of evolution; human evolution.

Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Animal husbandry, Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, Antibiotics; production and judicious use, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and mbio-fertilizers.

Unit IX: Biotechnology and Its Applications

Chapter 11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes

Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). 

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; RNA interference, Human insulin, gene therapy; molecular diagnosis; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit X: Ecology and Environment

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

Ecosystem: structure and function; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; case study exemplifying success story addressing environmental issue(s).