Exam Structure

Part/Unit Topic or Chapter Marks
Part A Fundamentals of Physical Geography 35
Unit-1 Geography as a discipline  
Unit-2 The Earth  
Unit-3 Landforms  
Unit-4 Climate  
Unit-5 Water (Oceans) - OTBA  
Unit-6 Life on the Earth  
  Map and Diagram 5
Part B India - Physical Environment 35
Unit-7 Introduction  
Unit-8 Physiography  
Unit-9 Climate, vegetation and soil  
Unit-10 Natural hazards and Disasters  
  Map and Diagram  5
Part C Practical Work 30
Unit-1 Fundamentals of Maps 10 
Unit-2 Topographic and Weather Maps 15 
  Practical Record Book and Viva

Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography

Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline

  • Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes.
  • Branches of Geography; PhysicalGeography and Human Geography.
  • Scope and Career Options

Unit-2: The Earth

  • Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth.
  • Wegener's continental drift theory and plate tectonics.
  • Earthquakes and volcanoes: causes, types and effects.

Unit-3: Landforms

  • Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics.
  • Landforms and their evolution.
  • Geomorphic processes: weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil-formation.

Unit 4: Climate

  • Atmosphere- composition and structure;elements of weather and climate.
  • Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperature- factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature.
  • Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical and extratropical cyclones.
  • Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost,fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution.
  • World climates-classification (Koeppen and Thornthwaite), Global warming and climatic changes.
  • Climate and Global Concerns.

Unit 5: Hydrosphere

  • Basics of Oceanography
  • Oceans - distribution of temperature and salinity.
  • Movements of ocean water-waves, tides and currents; submarine reliefs.
  • Ocean resources and pollution.

Unit 6: Biosphere

  • Biosphere - importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystem and ecological balance.

Map work on identification of features based on 1 to 6 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of the world.

Part - B: India - Physical Environment

Unit-7: Introduction

  • Location, space relations, India's place in the world.

Unit-8: Physiography 

  • Structure and Relief; Physiographic Divisions.
  • Drainage systems: Concept of river basins, Watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.

Unit-9: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

  • Weather and climate - spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds and rainfall, Indian monsoon: mechanism, onset and withdrawal, variability of rainfalls: spatial and temporal; use of weather charts; Climatic types (Koeppen).
  • Natural vegetation-forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves.
  • Soils - major types (ICAR's classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.

Unit-10: Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management

  • Floods, Cloudbursts
  • Droughts: types and impact
  • Earthquakes and Tsunami
  • Cyclones: features and impact
  • Landslides

Map Work of features based on above units for locating and labelling on the Outline/Political/Physical map of India.

Part - C: Practical Work

Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps

  • Geo spatial data, Concept of Geographicaldata matrix; Point, line, area data.
  • Maps - types; scales-types; construction of simple linear scale, measuring distance; finding direction and use of symbols.
  • Map projection - Latitude, longitude and time, typology, construction and properties of projection: Conical with one standard parallel and Mercator's projection. (only two projections)

Unit 2: Topographic and Weather Maps

  • Study of topographic maps (1:50,000 or 1:25,000 Survey of India maps); contour cross section and identification of landforms-slopes, hills, valleys, waterfall, cliffs; distribution of settlements.
  • Aerial Photographs: Types and Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps and aerial photographs; photo scale determination. Identification of physical and cultural features.
  • Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform and sensors and data products, (photographic and digital).
  • Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, wind vane, rain gauge.