The syllabus consists of three units: (iii) Cell: Structure and Function (iv) Plant Physiology (v) Human Physiology.
|III||Cell: Structure and Function||5|
Chapter 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.
Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants
Exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations - number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.
Chapter 15: Plant - Growth and Development
Growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA.
Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases
Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration - asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.
Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation
Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system - Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system - hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.
Chapter 19: Excretory Products and their Elimination
Modes of excretion - ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system - structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function - renin - angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.
Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement
Skeletal muscle, contractile proteins and muscle contraction.
Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination
Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans - central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse.
Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and Integration
Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary Idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo - and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addision's disease.
Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.