Science Class 10 Syllabus
The syllabus consists of five units: (i) Chemical Substances (ii) World of Living (iii) Natural Phenomenon (iv) Effects of Current (v) Natural Resources.
|I||Chemical Substances - Nature & Behaviour||25|
|II||World of Living||25|
|IV||Effects of Current||13|
Unit I: Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour
Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, endothermic exothermic reactions, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples and uses, neutralization, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Metals and non metals: Properties of metals and non-metals, reactivity series, formation and properties of ionic compounds, basic metallurgical processes, Corrosion and its prevention.
Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Unit II: World of Living
Life processes: Living Being. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.
Control and co-ordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants; Introduction to plant hormones; control and co-ordination in animals: nervous system; voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.
Reproduction: Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual and sexual); reproductive health - need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women's health.
Heredity and Evolution: Heredity; Mendel's contribution - Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Unit III: Natural Phenomenon
Reflection of light at curved surfaces, Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.
Refraction; laws of refraction, refractive index.
Refraction of light by spherical lens, Image formed by spherical lenses, Lens formula (Derivation not required), Magnification. Power of a lens.
Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life (excluding colour of the sun at sunrise and sunset).
Unit IV: Effects of Current
Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm's law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Inter relation between P, V, I and R.
Magnetic effects of current: Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming's left hand rule. Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming's Right Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current: frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Unit V: Natural Resources
Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.